February 08, 2014

Manganese

      Manganese is present in foods, particularly green vegetables (2 mg/kg), nuts (14.9 mg/kg), bread  (8 mg/kg) and other cereals (6.81 mg/kg). Tea is a rich source of manganese, containing 2.71 mg/kg and  is the largest contributor to manganese intake. 

Functions of Manganese

  • Manganese is an important antioxidant. 
  • It is an essential for proper enzyme functioning in body.
  • Manganese help in normal brain functioning
  • It is useful for nutrient absorption
  • It helps in wound healing and bone development. 
  •  It is in necessary for building proteins and nucleic acid. 
  • It is useful in the treatment of many nervous system disorders including Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. 

Rich Sources

  • Spices and Herbs - Ground Cloves (105%DV per tablespoon), Saffron (50%DV per tablespoon), followed by cardamom, ground ginger, cinnamon, dry spearmint, parsley, bay leaf, tarragon, turmeric, dry coriander, and finally dried marjoram which provides 0.05mg (3% DV) per teaspoon
  • Toasted wheat germ (not bran) contains the most manganese with 20mg (998% DV) per 100 gram
  • Wheat bran provides 6.7mg (334% DV) per cup, rice bran provides 16.8mg (838% DV) per cup, and oat bran provides 2.1mg (106% DV) of manganese per cup
  • Nuts - Hazelnuts (or filberts) provide the most manganese with 12.7mg (633% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 3.5mg (177% DV) per ounce. Pine nuts provide 2.5mg (123% DV) per ounce (~167 kernels), and pecans provide 1.3mg (63% DV) of manganese per ounce (~19 pieces). Other nuts high in manganese in descending order include: hickory nuts, english walnuts, macadamias, and finally almonds with 0.73mg (37% DV) per ounce (~22 pieces)
  • Chocolate is showing more and more health benefits and dark chocolate is coming into vogue. Unsweetened baking chocolate provides 4.2mg (208% DV) of manganese per 100g serving, 1.2mg (60% DV) per square. Cocoa powder will provide 3.8mg (192% DV) per 100g serving or 3.3mg (165% DV) per cup. Most milk chocolates provide around 0.5mg (24% DV) per 100g serving or 0.21mg (10%DV) per bar
  • Roasted Pumpkin and Squash Seeds - Pumpkin and squash seeds contain 0.5mg (25% DV) of manganese per 100g serving, 0.32mg (16% DV) per cup, and 0.14mg (10% DV) per ounce (85 seeds
  • Flax seeds, Sesame Seeds and Sesame Butter (Tahini) - Flax and Sesame seeds are a great source of heart healthy oils and also provide a good source of manganese. Sesame Butter (Tahini) provides 2.54mg (211% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 0.41mg (20% DV) per tablespoon. Dried sesame seeds and flax seeds provide 2.5mg (123% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 0.25mg (12% DV) per tablespoon
  • Chilli Powder
  • Roasted Soybeans (Edamame)
  • Sunflower Seeds



Recommended Daily Intake

  • Males 19 years and older: 2.3 mg
  • Females 19 years and older: 1.8 mg
  • Pregnant women: 2 mg
  • Breastfeeding women: 2.6 mg

Deficiency 

Joint pain, inflammation, arthritis, bursitis, dermatitis, Parkinson’s disease, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, diabetes, and epilepsy are all much higher in individuals with low levels of manganese in their body.

Symptoms 

  • Ataxia which is lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements 
  • Problems metabolizing carbohydrates as manganese is essential in its metabolism
  • Poor memory
  • Nervous irritability
  • Dermatitis
  • Fatigue
  • Blood sugar problems
  • Heavy menstrual periods
  • Fragile bones and joint problems

Prone to Deficiency 

  • Women who are pregnant or lactating

Overdose 

Over intake of manganese is rare but symptoms may include lethargy, involuntary movements and posture problems.

Source

                manganese
                Picture

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