Nephrotic Syndrome can be caused due to progressive glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, amyloidosis, quartun malaria, resulting due to drugs, heavy metals and toxic venom
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much protein in the urine.
The most common cause in children is minimal change disease. Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.
This condition can also occur from
Diseases such as diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, and amyloidosis
Infections (such as strep throat, hepatitis, or mononucleosis)
Use of certain drugs
It can occur with kidney disorders such as
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis
Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. It may occur:
In the face and around the eyes (facial swelling)
In the arms and legs, especially in the feet and ankles
In the belly area (swollen abdomen)
Other symptoms include:
Foamy appearance of the urine
Weight gain (unintentional) from fluid retention
The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and delay kidney damage. To control nephrotic syndrome, you must treat the disorder that is causing it. You may need treatment for life.
Keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mmHg to delay kidney damage. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are the medicines most often used. ACE inhibitors may also help decrease the amount of protein lost in the urine.
You may take corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress or quiet the immune system.
Treat high cholesterol to reduce the risk of heart and blood vessel problems. A low-fat, low-cholesterol diet is usually not very helpful for people with nephrotic syndrome. Medications to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides (usually statins) may be needed.
A low-salt diet may help with swelling in the hands and legs. Water pills (diuretics) may also help with this problem.
Low-protein diets may be helpful. Your health care provider may suggest eating a moderate-protein diet (1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight per day).
You may need vitamin D supplements if nephrotic syndrome is long-term and not responding to treatment.
Blood thinners may be needed to treat or prevent blood clots.