Acute renal failure (also called acute kidney injury) means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working. Your kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (electrolytes) in your blood. When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause problems that can be deadly.
A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys.
Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections. Most people don't have any kidney problems from taking medicines. But people who have serious, long-term health problems are more likely than other people to have a kidney problem from medicines. Examples of medicines that can sometimes harm the kidneys include:
Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin.
Pain medicines, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
Some blood pressure medicines, such as ACE inhibitors.
The dyes used in some X-ray tests.
A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys. Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.
Little or no urine when you urinate.
Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
Not feeling like eating.
Nausea and vomiting.
Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.
Some people may not have any symptoms.
Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is causing your kidneys to fail. Treatment can vary widely, depending on the cause. For example, your doctor may need to restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop any medicines that may be causing the problem, or remove or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract.
At the same time, the doctor will try to stop wastes from building up in your body. You may have dialysis. This treatment uses a machine to do the work of your kidneys until they recover. It will help you feel better.
Prevent other problems. You may take antibiotics to prevent or treat infections. You also may take other medicines to get rid of extra fluid and keep your body’s minerals in balance.
Proteins: All foods containing protein should be stopped if the patient is under conservative treatment and blood urea nitrogen is rising.
Carbohydrates: A minimum of 100g/day is essential to minimize tissue protein breakdown.
Fluid: The total fluid permitted is 500 ml+ losses through urine and gastrointestinal tract.
Sodium and potassium: Decrease amount of sodium and potassium in diet